Select two (2) of the following 4 essays to answer (Research, Memory, Learning, the Brain – select two of these four topics and answer each question within the two topics that you select). Given this, you should be as detailed as possible in answering all portions of the question you select. There is a 600 word minimum for this exam (600 for both essays combined-no maximum). Be mindful that this essay is to be your own work and to cite (provide references for) any material that you have used to gather information. The references should be in APA style

  1. Answered 2 prompts following the instructions and titled them according to the chapter and question number
  2. EACH response needs to be a minimum of 350 words
  3. Does it address all parts of each prompt?

Select two (2) of the following:

1. Research (if this is selected all of the below questions must be answered)

(A) Explain the difference between a correlational and an experimental research study. Be sure to explain what type of conclusions can be drawn from each. (B) Explain why “a correlation does not prove causation”. (C) What is the difference between a positive correlation and a negative correlation? (D) Explain the difference between an independent variable and a dependent variable as used in the experimental method.

2. Memory (if this is selected all of the below questions must be answered-A&B)

A. (1) Distinguish between declarative and nondeclarative (procedural) memory, and distinguish between semantic and episodic memory. (2) Explain how these types of memory are interrelated and (3) provide examples of each.

B. Next Using the Atkinson and Shiffrin model of memory, describe the capacity, the durability, and the typical form of information storage in each of the three human memory systems.

3. Learning (if this is selected all of the below questions must be answered)

(1) Describe positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. (2) Also give an example of each and include in the example what happens after an animal/person makes a response, will the animal’s/person’s responding increase or decrease in the future. (3) Describe how negative reinforcement differs from punishment. (4) Finally, describe the essential differences between classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

4. The Brain (if this is selected all of the below questions must be answered-A&B)

A) Summarize the functions of the brain’s two hemispheres and explain their relationship.

B) Imagine meeting four separate individuals who have each sustained injuries to different sections of their brain. Person A has irreversible damage to her frontal lobe. Person B has irreversible damage to his parietal lobe. Person C has irreversible damage to her temporal lobe, and person D has irreversible damage to his occipital lobe. Briefly, what would be the effects of each of these injuries?